Causes | Medhub

Although the cause of most cases of AML is unknown, there are several risk factors:2

• Smoking
• Male gender and older age
• Overexposure to organic solvents, such as benzene
• Treatment for another cancer—particularly chemotherapy and radiation therapy
• Affliction with a chronic blood disease, such as polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myelodysplastic syndrome
 

Epidemiology
 Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, with an incidence of over 20 000 cases per year in the United States alone1. The overall prevalence in Sweden was 13.7 per 100,000 persons in 2014.4 Roughly 1.4 times as many males are affected versus females,3 and the incidence of AML is 10-fold higher in persons aged 65 years and over compared with individuals aged under 65 years.3 The 5-year survival rate for AML patients is approximately 27%.3

 

References

1. De Kouchkovsky I, Abdul-Hay M. Blood Cancer J. 2016 Jul;6(7):e441.
2. American Cancer Society. Acute myeloid leukemia [Internet]. [cited 2019 Feb 21] Available from: https://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/hp/adult-aml-treatment-pdq.
3. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER). SEER stat fact sheets: acute myeloid leukemia [Internet]. [cited 2019 Feb 21] Available from: http://seer.cancer.gov/statfacts/html/amyl.html.
4. G Juliusson, J Abrahamsson, V Lazarevic, et al., for the Swedish AML Group and the Swedish Childhood Leukemia Group. Leukemia. 2017 Mar; 31(3): 728–731.
5. Lin et al.  Clin Med Insights Oncol. 2012; 6:205-217  
6. Döhner H, Estey E, Grimwade D, Amadori S, Appelbaum FR, Büchner T, et al. Blood. 2017 Jan;129(4):424-47.
7. National Cancer Institute. Adult acute myeloid leukemia treatment (PDQ®)-Patient Version. http://www.cancer.gov/types/leukemia/patient/adult-aml-treatment-pdq
8. Rydapt (midostaurin) Summary of Prodcut Characteristic
 
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