Här samlar vi artiklar om ADHD och Ritalin/metylfenidat.

Publikationer
Konsensusrapporter 
Behandlingsöversikter 
Ritalin/metylfenidat: Verkningsmekanism 
Ritalin: Jämförande studier 
Säkerhet och samsjuklighet

 

Publikationer

Gnanavel S, Sharma P, Kaushal P et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and comorbidity: A review of literature World J Clin Cases 2019 September 6; 7(17): 2420-2426.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31559278

Abstract: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with onset in early childhood. It is a clinically heterogenous condition with comorbidity posing a distinct challenge to diagnosing and managing these children and adolescents. This review aims to provide an overview of comorbidity with ADHD including other neurodevelopmental disorders, learning disorders, externalising and internalising disorders. Challenges in screening for, diagnosing and managing comorbidity with ADHD are summarised. Also, methodological challenges and future directions in research in this interesting field are highlighted.

Kittel-Schneider S, Wolff S, Queiser K et al. Prevalence of ADHD in Accident Victims: Results of the PRADA Study. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1643.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31597400

Abstract: Background: Recent research has shown an increased risk of accidents and injuries inADHD patients, which could potentially be reduced by stimulant treatment. Therefore, the first aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of adult ADHD in a trauma surgery population. The second aim was to investigate accident mechanisms and circumstances which could be specific to ADHD patients, in comparison to the general population. Methods: We screened 905 accident victims for ADHD using the ASRS 18-item self-report questionnaire. The basic demographic data and circumstances of the accidents were also assessed.
Results: Prevalence of adult ADHD was found to be 6.18% in our trauma surgery patient sample. ADHD accident victims reported significantly higher rates of distraction, stress and overconfidence in comparison to non-ADHD accident victims. Overconfidence and being in thoughts as causal mechanisms for the accidents remained significantly higher in ADHD patients after correction for multiple comparison. ADHD patients additionally reported a history of multiple accidents. Conclusion: The majority of ADHD patients in our sample had not previously been diagnosed and were therefore not receiving treatment. The results subsequently suggest that general ADHD screening in trauma surgery patients may be useful in preventing further accidents in ADHD patients. Furthermore, psychoeducation regarding specific causal accident mechanisms could be implemented in ADHD therapy to decrease accident incidence rate.

Franke B, Michelini G, Asherson P et al. Live fast, die young? A review on the developmental trajectories of ADHD across the lifespan. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2018 Oct;28(10):1059-1088. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30195575

Abstract: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is highly heritable and the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. In recent decades, it has been appreciated that in a substantial number of cases the disorder does not remit in puberty, but persists into adulthood. Both in childhood and adulthood, ADHD is characterised by substantial comorbidity including substance use. depression, anxiety, and accidents. However, course and symptoms of the disorder and the comorbidities may fluctuate and change over time, and even age of onset in child-hood has recently been questioned. Available evidence to date is poor and largely inconsistent with regard to the predictors of persistence versus remittance. Likewise, the development of comorbid disorders cannot be foreseen early on, hampering preventive measures. These facts call for a lifespan perspective on ADHD from childhood to old age. In this selective review. we summarise current knowledge of the long-term course of ADHD, with an emphasis on clinical symptom and cognitive trajectories, treatment effects over the lifespan, and the development of comorbidities. Also, we summarise current knowledge and important unresolved issues on biological factors underlying different ADHD trajectories. We conclude that a severe lack of knowledge on lifespan aspects in ADHD still exists for nearly every aspect reviewed. We encourage large-scale research efforts to overcome those knowledge gaps through appropriately granular longitudinal studies.

Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Faraone SV et al. Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: key conceptual issues. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;3(6);568-78.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183901

For many years, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was thought to be a childhood-onset disorder that has a limited effect on adult psychopathology. However, the symptoms and impairments that define ADHD often affect the adult population, with similar responses to drugs such as methylphenidate, dexamphetamine, and atomoxetine, and psychosocial interventions, to those seen in children and adolescents. As a result, awareness of ADHD in adults has rapidly increased and new clinical practice has emerged across the world. Despite this progress, treatment of adult ADHD in Europe and many other regions of the world is not yet common practice, and diagnostic services are often unavailable or restricted to a few specialist centres. This situation is remarkable given the strong evidence base for sate and effective treatments. Here we address some of the key conceptual issues surrounding the diagnosis of ADHD relevant to practicing health-care professionals working with adult populations. We conclude that ADHD should be recognised in the same way as other common adult mental health disorders, and that failure to recognise and treat ADHD is detrimental to the wellbeing of many patients seeking help tor common mental health problems. 

Corbisiero S, Mörstedt B, Bitto H et al. Emotional dysregulation in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-validity, predictability, severity, and comorbidity. J Clin Psychol. 2016 May 6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27153511

OBJECTIVES: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. However, this triad might not be able to explain the complete spectrum of ADHD symptoms, as emotional dysregulation (ED) frequently seems to accompany the disorder. The aim of this study was to further understand the role of ED in adult ADHD.  METHOD: The sample comprised 393 adults with ADHD without or with comorbidity, and 121 adults without ADHD or any other mental disorder. Additionally, the sample focused on ED. The contribution of core symptoms and the effect of comorbidity on ED were tested and the predictive value of ED for the ADHD diagnosis itself analyzed. Finally, all subjects were categorized into groups-No ADHD, ADHD, and ADHD + ED-to analyze the differences in the severity of ADHD symptomatology in the three groups.
RESULTS: ED levels were found to be elevated in patients with ADHD. The core symptoms affected ED, and the ADHD diagnosis was predicted by ED. The addition of ED to a regression model with the core symptoms was shown to improve the predictability of the ADHD diagnosis. The presence of ED proved to be an indicator of the severity of adult ADHD independent of a present comorbidity. CONCLUSIONS: ED is a significant symptom in adult patients with ADHD and appears to be associated with ADHD itself. Whilst the presence of other mental disorders intensifies symptoms of ED, ED seems not to manifest solely as a consequence of comorbidity. 

Skoglund C, Brandt L, Almqvist C et al. Factors associated with adherence to methylphenidate treatment in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2016:36:222-228. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 27043119

Abstract: Adherence to treatment is one of the most consistent factors associated with a favorable addiction treatment outcome. Little is known about factors associated with treatment adherence in individuals affected with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders (SUD). This study aimed to explore whether treatment-associated factors, such as the prescribing physician's (sub) specialty and methylphenidate (MPH) dose, or patient-related factors, such as sex, age, SUD subtype, and psychiatric comorbidity, were associated with adherence to MPH treatment. Swedish national registers were used to identify adult individuals with prescriptions of MPH and medications specifically used in the treatment of SUD or a diagnosis of SUD and/or coexisting psychiatric diagnoses. Primary outcome measure was days in active MPH treatment in stratified dose groups (≤36 mg, ≥37 mg to ≤54 mg, ≥55 mg to ≤72 mg, ≥73 mg to ≤90 mg, ≥91 mg to ≤108 mg, and ≥109 mg). Lower MPH doses (ie, ≤36 mg day 100) were associated with treatment discontinuation between days 101 and 830 (HR≤36 mg, 1.67; HR37-54mg, 1.37; HR55-72mg, 1.36; HR73-90mg, 1.19; HR≥108mg, 1.09). The results showed a linear trend (P < 0.0001) toward decreased risk of treatment discontinuation along with increase of MPH doses. In conclusion, this study shows that higher MPH doses were associated with long-term treatment adherence in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and SUD.

Rommel AS, Lichtenstein P, Rydell M et al. Is Physical Activity Causally Associated With Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2015;54(7):565-570.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26088661

Raquel Vidal-Estrada, Bosch- Munso R, Nogueira M et al. Psychological treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: a systematic review Actas Esp Psiquiatr 2012;40(3)147-54.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22723133

Dalsgaard S, Oesterman SD, Leckman JF et al. Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a nationwide cohort. Lancet 2015; 385 2190-96. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25726514

Dalsgaard S, Leckman JF, Mortensen PB et al. Effect of drugs on the risk of injuries in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a prospective cohort study. Lancet Psychiatry 2015;2:702-09. 
http://www.ncbi.nIm.nih.gov/pubmed/26249301

Ginsberg Y, Quintero J, Anand E et al. Underdiagnosis of ADHD in adult patients: A review of the Literature. Prim Care Companion CMS Disord 2014;16(3)
http://www.ncbi.nIm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317367

Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Tvedten T, Arngrim T et al. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Modified-Release in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Adv Ther, 2014:31(1):44-65.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24371021

Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T et al. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis of Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial. Clin Drug Investig. 2014; 34(9): 639-649.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015027

Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T, Philipsen A et al. Long-Term (1 Year) Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate Modified-Release Long-Acting Formulation (MPH-LA) in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A 26-Week, Flexible-Dose, Open-Label Extension to a 40-Week, Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Core Study. CNS Drugs 2014 Oct;28(10):951-62.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25183661

 

Vid behandling med metylfenidat hos barn och ungdomar med ADHD finns checklistor att använda. Checklista 1: före behandling, Checklista 2: övervakning av behandling samt en Tabell Se länk för mer information.
http://www.methylphenidate-guide.eu/landing/
 

Konsensusrapporter

Kooij J.J.S, Bijlenga D, Salerno L et al. Updated European Consensus Statement on diagnosis and treatment of adult ADHD European Psychiatry 56 (2019) 14–34.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/ 30453134

Abstract: Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness. Methods: The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated. Results: Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated? Conclusions: ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults 
with ADHD.

Kooij S, Bejerot S, Blackwell A et al. European consensus statement on diagnosis and treatment of Adult ADHD: The European NetWork Adult ADHD. BMC Psychiatry, 2010;10:67.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20815868

Banaschewski T, Coghill D, Santosh P et al. Long-acting medications for the hyperkinetic disorders. A systematic review and European treatment guideline. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 2006;15:476-95. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16680409

 

Behandlingsöversikter

Polanczyk G, Wilcutt EG, Salem GA et al. ADHD prevalence estimates across three decades: an updated systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Int. J. Epidemiol. Advance Access published January 24, 2014.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24464188

Ginsberg Y,  Quintero J, Anand E et al. Underdiagnosis of ADHD in adult patients; A review of the Literature. Prim Care Companion CNS Disord 2014;16(3). 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25317367

Ginsberg Y, Beusterien KM, Amos K et al. The unmet needs of all adults with ADHD are not the same: a focus on Europe. Expert Reviews. Informahealthcare.com 2014;799-812. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24894408

Dalsgaard S, Oesterman SD, Leckman JF et al. Mortality in children, adolescents, and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder a nationwide cohort. Lancet 2015; 385 2190-96.  
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25726514

Ginsberg Y, Långström N, Larsson et al. ADHD and criminality: could treatment benefit prisoners with ADHD who are at higher risk of reoffending? Expert Rev. Neurother, 2013; 13(4), 345-348. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23545049

Konstenius M, Larsson H, Lundholm L et al. An Epidemiological Study of ADHD, Substance Use, and Comorbid Problems in Incarcerated Women in Sweden. J of Attention Disord 2015. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22797213

Lichtenstein P, Halldner L, Zetterqvist J et al. Medication for Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder and Criminality. N Engl J Med,2012;367:2006-14.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23171097

Halmoey A, Fasmer OB, Gillber C et al. Occupational Outcome in Adult ADHD: Impact of Symptom Profile, Comorbid Psychiatric Problems, and Treatment of Attention Disord. 2009;13:175-87. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19372500

Chang Z, Lichtenstein P, D Onofrio B et al. Serious transport accidents in adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and the effect of medication. A population-based study. JAMA Psychiatry, 2014; 71(3):319-25. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24477798

Biederman J, Petty CR, Oconnor  KB et al. Predictors of persistence in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: results from an 11-year controlled follow-up study. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2012:125:147-156.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20656298

Coghill D. The Impact of Medications on Quality of Life in Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. A Systematic Review. CNS Drugs, 2010;24(10):843-866.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20839896

Coles T, Coon C, DeMuro C et al. Psychometric evaluation of the Sheehan Disability Scale in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2014; 10:887-895. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24899807
 

Ritalin®: verkningsmekanism

Tripp G, Wickens JR. Review. Neurobiology of ADHD. Neuropharmacology 2009;57:579-589. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19627998

Patrick KS,Gonzales MA,Straughn AB et al. New methylphenidate formulations for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Expert Opin Drug Deliv.2005:2:121-43.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16296740
 

Ritalin®: Jämförande studier

Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Tvedten T et al. Methylphenidate Hydrochloride Modified-Release in Adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial. Adv Ther, 2014;31(1):44-65.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24371021

Huss M, Ginsberg Y, Amgrim T et al. Open-Label Dose Optimization of Methylphenidate Modified Release Long Acting (MPH-LA): A Post Hoc Analysis ot Real-Life Titration from a 40-Week Randomized Trial. Clin Drug Investig. 2014; 34(9): 639-649. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25015027

Ginsberg Y, Arngrim T, Philipsen A et al. Long-Term (1 Year) Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate Modified-Release Long-Acting Formulation (MPH-LA) in Adults with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A 26-Week, Flexible-Dose, Open-Label Extension to a 40-Week, Double-Blind, Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Core Study. CNS Drugs 2014 Oct;28(10):951-62. 
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25183661

Markowitz J, Straughn AB, Patrick KS et al. Pharmacokinetics of Methylphenidate After Oral Administration of Two Modified-Release Formulations in Healthy Adults. Clin Pharmacokinet, 2003;42(4):393-401.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12648029

Haessler F, Tracik F, Dietrich H et al. A pharmacokinetic study of two modified-release methylphenidate formulations under different food conditions in healthy volunteers. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2008;46(9):466-476.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18793577

Lopez F, Silva R, Pestreich L et al. Comparative Efficacy of Two Once Daily Methylphenidate Formulations (Ritalin LA and Concerta) and Placebo in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Across the School Day. Pediatr Drugs, 2003;5(8):545-555.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12895137

Silva R, Muniz R, Pestreich LK et al. Efficacy of Two Long-Acting Methylphenidate Formulations in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Laboratory Classroom Setting. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2005;15(4):637-654.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16190795

Schulz E, Fleischhaker C, Hennighausen K et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo/Active Controlled Crossover Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Ritalin LA in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in a Laboratory Classroom Setting. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, 2010;20(5):377-385.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20973708

 

Säkerhet och samsjuklighet

Humphreys K, Eng T, Lee SS. Stimulant Medication and Substance Use Outcomes A Meta-analysis. JAMA Psychiatry, 2013;70(7):740-749. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23754458

Konstenius M, Jayaram-Lindstrom N, Guterstam J et al. Methylphenidate for ADHD and Drug Relapse in Criminal Offenders with Substance Dependence: A 24-week Randomized Placebo-controlled Trial. Addiction, 2014 ;109(3):440-449.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24118269

Poulton A, Melzer E, Tait PR et al. Growth and pubertal development of adolescent boys on stimulant medication for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Med J Ausl, 2013; 21;198(1):29-32.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23330767

Kollins SH. A qualitative review of issues arising in the use of psychostimulant medications in patients with ADHD and comorbid substance use disorders. Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2008;24(5):1345-1357.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18384709

Spencer TJ. Issues in the Management of Patients with Complex Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms. CNS Drugs, 2009;23(1):9-20.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19621974

Ginsberg Y, Hirvikoski T, Lindefors N. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) among longer-term prison inmates is a prevalent, persistent and disabling disorder. BMC Psychiatry, 2010;(10):112. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21176203

Cooper WO, Habel LA, Sox CM et al. ADHD Drugs and Serious Cardiovascular Events in Children and Young Adults. N Engl J Med. 2011:17;365 (20):1896-904. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22043968

Faraone S, Biederman J, Morley CP et al. Effect of Stimulants on Height and Weight A Review of the Literature. J. Ann, Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, 2008:47(9):994-1009. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18580502

Yoon SY, Jain U, Shapiro CM. Sleep in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adults: Past, present, and future. Sleep Med Rev., 2012;16(4):371-88. 
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22033171
 

 

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